【Debate Speech 格式】5大寫作技巧|揭開一篇辯論演說的秘密【完整指南】

Spencer Lam
Spencer Lam
英文補習名師,港大一級榮譽,多年英文補習經驗,歷年來曾教授超過1000名學生,學生遍及各大名校,由初中至成人英語皆可因材施教,獲《TVB 星期日檔案》、《Now TV》、《ViuTV》、《晴報》、《明珠台》、《UMagazine》等專訪

DSE英文文章內容在此推介課程下:

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教授四卷獨門考試技巧以及加強考試常用詞彙等。

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Debate Speech 格式

辯論一直以來都是學術和智力成長中不可或缺的一部分,它能夠讓個人進行批判性思考、清晰表達自己的觀點,並發展出有說服力的論點。

在DSE(中學文憑試)考試的中,辯論演講辭有時會被問及,因為它考驗學生分析複雜問題、提出邏輯論據和有效溝通的能力。

在本文中,我們將探討DSE辯論演講的格式和結構,為希望在這一具有挑戰性但回報豐富的考試中表現出色的學生提供全面的指南。

Debate Speech 格式

Debate speech 格式是千篇一律,基本上都是一樣的,但不要另外自行改英文字!!!

Debate Speech format

Greeting (例如:Good morning, adjudicators, the opponent team, ladies and gentlemen,)

引言(opening)

正文段落 1(Body Paragraph 1)

正文段落 2(Body Paragraph 2)

正文段落 3(Body Paragraph 3)

駁論(Rebuttal)

結論(Conclusion)

Thank you(通常最後會加)

Debate Speech 格式

如果您想在DSE Writing取得Level 5+ 成績,小編建議您同時閱讀另一篇文章關於 Speech 格式裏面有詳細解釋以及滿分範文

Debate Speech 格式 1. Greeting

DSE Debate Speech Greeting 打招呼

在辯論演講中,打招呼是一個必不可缺的部份。它可以幫助建立與評判和觀眾之間的良好關係,同時營造出一個友好和尊重的氛圍。

基本上,Debate Speech的greeting都是與辯論相關的人,所以大家可以記下他們的稱呼便可。

例句:

Good morning, adjudicators, the opponent team, ladies and gentlemen,

尊敬的評審、對方團隊的成員,女士們先生們,

Debate Speech 格式 2. 開頭/引言

Debate Speech Introduction

Debate Speech 引言寫作技巧

開頭部分是你與評判/聽眾建立聯繫的機會。

Step 1 表明身分

當你表明自己的身份時,這有助於建立你與聽眾/評判之間的信任關係,讓他們更願意接受你的觀點和意見。

Debate Speech 固定詞彙

affirmative team 正方

negative team 反方

motion 動議

captain 隊長

例句:

I am Chris Wong, the captain of the affirmative team.

我是Chris Wong,正方隊隊長。 

Step 2 表示榮幸

在引言表示榮幸是一個很好的方法表達尊重是次辯論

例句:

Today, it is an honor to participate in this debate.

今天,我很榮幸能參加這場辯論。

Step 3 進入主題

進入主題的過程可以幫助聽眾進入演講的內容和主題。

大家只需要重提一次題目便可。

Debate Speech 固定詞彙

motion 動議

例句:

Today, we gather to discuss a motion that affects us all: the issue of garbage disposal and the imposition of waste collection fees

今天我們聚集在一起討論一項影響我們所有人的議案:垃圾處理問題和徵收垃圾收集費

Step 4 激起觀眾/評判好奇心

在寫引言時,我們可以採用多種策略,例如:

  • 引用名人名言或相關的歷史事件,以吸引聽眾的興趣和共鳴。
  • 讓聽眾回憶自己的個人經歷,這能夠在情感上與觀眾建立聯繫。
  • 引用令人驚訝或引人深思的事實或統計數據,以引發聽眾的好奇心和思考。
  • 提出一個引人注目的問題,激發聽眾的思考和參與。

例句:

To all the guests and students sitting here in the hall, let me ask you a question: Do you believe that grades, with their numerical representation, truly capture the essence of your abilities and potential?

對於坐在大廳裡的所有嘉賓和學生,讓我問你們一個問題:你們相信成績及其數位代表能夠真正體現你們能力和潛力的本質嗎?

Debate Speech 格式 3. 內文

Debate Speech Body Paragraph

Debate Speech 內文寫作技巧

Debate Speech內容最重要的是確定演講的結構,包括開場白、主要內容和結語。使用有邏輯的論述、主題句等,幫助聽眾更容易理解和跟隨你的論點。

Step 1 主題句 

主題句是一個段落中最重要的句子,它概括了整個段落的主題和重點。寫作時,確定一個明確的主題句可以幫助您更好地組織您的論點,並使您的段落更加清晰和易於理解。

例句:

Let us consider the first point: the limitations of grades.

讓我們考慮第一點:成績的限制。

One potential approach that has gained traction in recent years is the implementation of waste collection fees.

近年來受到關注的潛在方法是徵收垃圾收集費。

Step 2 RICE

如何把內容寫的飽滿?

  • R – Reasons
  • I – Impact
  • C – Compare
  • E – Examples

透過這4個嚮導,

大家便可以提升內容全面性。

例如:

原因 Reason

There are multiple compelling reasons to support the implementation of mandatory environmental education curriculum. Firstly, environmental issues have become a global concern, and it is crucial to instill environmental awareness and stewardship in the younger generation.

支持實施強制性環境教育課程有許多令人信服的理由。 首先,環境議題已成為全球關注的議題,向年輕一代灌輸環保意識和管理意識至關重要。

影響 Impact

Students will develop an understanding of how environmental issues affect them personally and in the future, motivating them to take action.

學生將了解環境問題如何影響他們個人和未來,並激勵他們採取行動。

比較 Compare

Voluntary participation in environmental education programs is limited, whereas mandatory curriculum ensures that all students receive the same level of environmental education, thereby raising overall environmental awareness and action within society.

環境教育計畫的自願參與是有限的,而必修課程可確保所有學生接受相同程度的環境教育,從而提高社會整體的環境意識和行動。

例子 Examples

For instance, Finland incorporates comprehensive environmental education content into its school curriculum, positioning itself as a global pioneer in environmental stewardship.

例如,芬蘭將全面的環境教育內容納入其學校課程,將自己定位為環境管理的全球先驅。

Step 3 總結句

總結句應該要結合主要論點,回顧你在演講中提到的主要論點。這可以幫助你向聽眾/評判強調你的核心訊息,並提醒他們你所討論的重點。

另外,在總結句中強調你的主要論點的重要性和價值。你可以談論它們對個人、社會或組織的影響,以及為什麼這些觀點或建議是值得被重視的。

例句:

By attaching a cost to waste disposal, it can encourage behavioral change and promote more sustainable practices.

透過增加廢棄物處理成本,可以鼓勵行為改變並促進更永續的做法。

Debate Speech 內文搶分位

Debate Speech

上述的技巧已經可以協助你寫出結構嚴謹的debate speech內文段落。

不過,如果您想取高分 5/5*/5**

你還需要debate speech的獨特搶分位……

5**句式

  1. It is patently obvious that 句子
  2. Abolishing the ranking is the prerequisite for enhancing our system
  3. Ranks are merely evils suffocating students and the policy should be abolished in no time. = immediately 
  4. 萬用主題句: 
  • Among all the demerits of the system, the most noteworthy one is the fact that
  • On top of distorting the purpose of education, equally important is the fact that
  1. 分裂句: it is the system of revealing students’ ranks that distort the true meaning of education;
  2. They attach inordinate importance to the exams 

= They focus on exams 

  1. The results are far from satisfactory

= The results are not satisfactory

  1. 舉例: I am a striking example of this. 

= I am the example  = For example, 句子

畫面大法

Level 5*: 

Close your eyes for a moment and envision a vivid scene with me. Picture a classroom filled with teenagers, their shoulders weighed down by the burden of expectations. The air is heavy with stress and anxiety, as if the walls themselves are closing in on them. Is this the environment we want for our future leaders?

閉上眼睛,和我一起想像一個生動的場景。 想像教室裡擠滿了青少年,他們的肩膀因期望的重擔而沉重。 空氣中充滿了壓力和焦慮,彷彿牆壁正在向他們逼近。 這是我們想要為未來領導人提供的環境嗎?

Debate Speech 格式 4:駁論

Debate Speech Rebuttal

駁論是辯論中的一個重要階段,它旨在反駁對方的論點並展示自己的立場。

step 1 引述對手的觀點

選擇對方論點中最薄弱的論點進行反駁。這有助於集中討論在最有利的領域。

Our decent opponent team may argue that reclaimed water poses health risks.

我們體面的對手團隊可能會辯稱再生水會帶來健康風險。

step 2 指出對方的論點是錯誤的

例句:

Yet, such a claim is in fact ill-founded.

然而,這樣的說法其實是沒有根據的。

step 3 提出反駁論證

使用事實、數據、引用、例子等來反駁對方的論點。提供具體且有力的證據來支持你的主張。使用邏輯和合理的推理來解釋你的觀點。

例句:

However, it is important to note that modern water reclamation systems employ advanced treatment technologies that effectively remove pathogens and contaminants.

然而,值得注意的是,現代水回收系統採用先進的處理技術,可有效去除病原體和污染物。

step 4 總結對方的論點是不成立的

例句:

With this in mind, the opponent’s argument cannot stand

由此看來,對方的論點是站不住腳的。

Debate Speech 格式 5:結論

Debate Speech Conclusion

step 1 總結主要論點

回顧你在辯論中提出的主要論點。簡要地概述每個論點,確保聽眾記得你的主要論據。

例句:

In a nutshell, water reclamation is a practical, environmentally responsible, and economically beneficial solution to the pressing issue of water scarcity. By harnessing the potential of wastewater and stormwater, we can meet the increasing demand for water while reducing strain on freshwater sources, preserving ecosystems, and promoting sustainable development.

簡而言之,水回收是解決水資源短缺這一緊迫問題的一種實用的、對環境負責的、經濟上有利的解決方案。 透過利用廢水和雨水的潛力,我們可以滿足日益增長的水需求,同時減少淡水資源的壓力,保護生態系統並促進永續發展。

step 2 引發共鳴/呼籲

在演說中運用情感化的問題和強烈的表達,以引發聽眾的情感共鳴。這可以激發聽眾/評判的興趣和同情心,使他們更願意接受你的觀點。

例句:

Ladies and gentlemen, it is time for us to reflect on the environment we are creating for our young generation. We have the power to change the narrative and shape a future where teenagers can thrive, where their well-being is prioritized, and where success is measured by holistic growth, not just academic achievements.

女士們先生們,現在是我們反思我們為年輕一代創造的環境的時候了。 我們有能力改變現狀,塑造一個青少年能夠茁壯成長的未來,他們的福祉被優先考慮,成功的衡量標準是整體成長,而不僅僅是學業成績。

step 3 重申立場

在結論結尾時,明確且簡明地重申你的立場。這有助於讓聽眾清楚你的立場是什麼,並確保他們理解你的主要論點。

例句:

Therefore, today’s motion must stand

因此,今天的議案必須成立。

step 4 多謝大家

簡單一句:Thank you! 便可

Debate Speech 寫作原則

Debate Speech Writing

辯論演講是兩個對立方之間就某個問題進行的正式對話。 一方贊成這個問題,而另一方則反對。 辯論演講的主要目標是說服聽眾你的觀點是正確的。

此外,以下是確定辯論演講定義的兩個主要組成部分:

 背景描述了與該問題相關的地區正在發生的事情。

議案的精神解釋了你的論點將如何進行。
它由三個基本組件組成,如下所列。

  1. 邏輯一致性
  2. 事實正確性
  3. 情感訴求

另一方面,辯論演講可以幫助我們考慮許多觀點,同時也可以提高我們的公開演講能力。 它還可以幫助您掌握提出令人信服的論點的基礎知識。

而Debate Speech 格式與普通speech大同小異,只是有些字眼要轉為Debate Speech 專用的字眼。

不過Debate Speech的語境意識及行文風格則與普通大不相同!

DSE Debate Speech Sample

DSE Debate Speech Sample

Debate Speech 範文

是次範文出自2018年DSE Writing Q5

2018 DSE Writing Q5 部份一

【Greeting line】

Good morning, adjudicators, the opponent team, ladies and gentlemen,

2018 DSE Writing Q5 部份二

【表明身分】

I am Chris Wong, the captain of the affirmative team.

【表示榮幸及帶出主題】

Today, it is my honour to be standing here to argue for the motion – “The policy of reporting students’ class position should be abolished.”

【激起觀眾/評判好奇心】

To all the guests and students sitting here in the hall, can you still vividly recall your feelings when you last received your report card with a long list of numbers indicating your position? Excited? Delighted? Deflated? Desperate? Are you satisfied with the fact that your academic performance is reduced to a mere set of numbers on a report card?

While some contend that these numbers are good indicators that drive students’ improvements in school results, my team holds the firm belief that these ranks are merely evils suffocating students and the policy should be abolished in no time. My team have three points to make.

2018 DSE Writing Q5 部份三

【萬用主題句】

Among all the demerits of the system, the most noteworthy one is the fact that class positions create distortion on the genuine purpose of education in students’ mind. 

【原因】

Under the grade-fixated education system in Hong Kong, students attach inordinate importance to examinations as they believe that achieving academic excellence would guarantee them a spot in an elite university and thus a promising future. The notoriously demanding education system has already afflicted students for long, and the system of reporting students’ class positions has aggravated the phenomenon.

【例子】

Just imagine: after seeing these numbers in the report card, what would be your reaction? Probably to have a glimpse of the results of your classmates to make a comparison with them.

【影響】

If ones prevails over others, they will become complacent and the determination to keep this “elite status” will be ignited in their mind, (which makes=) making them work tooth and nail just to get an outstanding class position. Education would become a ranking game from their perspective, overshadowing the genuine meaning of education.

【比較】

If one loses this game against others, they will find themselves fallen into a dark abyss and deem themselves as failed individuals. Hence, this system of reporting class positions would be favourable to churning out scoring machines, but not upholding the essence of education – to cultivate the all-round development of individuals.

【總結句】

With this in mind, this system should not be advocated.

2018 DSE Writing Q5 部份四

【萬用主題句】

On top of distorting the purpose of education, equally important is the fact that the system of reporting students’ class positions is unfair to students, especially the senior form students.

【原因】

As you all know, the New Senior Secondary curriculum allows students to opt for diversified electives and the combinations of electives are countless. While each subject may impose a different mode of assessment on students, it makes no sense to compare students’ class positions based on the average scores calculated using the marks of subjects of different realms. 

【例子】

I am a striking example of this. As I am keen on language analysis, I chose Chinese Literature and English Literature as my electives. Yet, the scores obtained in exams are lower than those of science students, even though I topped the list among the students taking my electives last year. It turns out my class position is far from satisfactory. Does this imply that I didn’t perform well in exams? Does this imply others who are ranked higher than me are necessarily better than me? Obviously not.

【總結句】

Given that students take different electives in senior forms, the class positions mean nothing and should thus be abolished. 

2018 DSE Writing Q5 部份五

【萬用主題句】

Here comes to our final argument – the system of reporting students’ positions will exacerbate the phenomenon of “Tiger Moms” in Hong Kong, ultimately putting huge strains on students.

【原因】

Our city is notorious for “Tiger Moms” and helicopter parents that exert massive pressure on their children, be it extra-curricular activities or academic results. As parents may not know much about the curriculum of the subjects and the daily performance of their children, the one and only indicator for them to evaluate their performance would be the class positions.

【例子 – 引發共鳴】

I am sure many of you sitting here have a similar experience. Dissatisfied and exasperated by the plunging class positions in your report cards, your parents scold you for not working industriously. As time goes by, they are increasingly demanding and compel you to do extra revision and an unreasonably large number of mock exam papers. Coupled with the long hours of schooling, you may feel so stressed that you have heated arguments with your parents. It is lamentable to see that such trivial numbers on report cards can ironically aggravate the pressure of students and even erode family harmony. 

【總結句】

Under this line of thinking, it is our team’s belief that the class position system should be abolished. 

2018 DSE Writing Q5 部份六

【對手觀點】

Our decent opponent team would counter my stance, contending that class positions are driving forces for students to elevate their performance in exams. Such a belief is based on the assumption that scores do not mean anything as they cannot reflect our performance relative to other students and ranks are the best barometers for them to reflect on their shortcomings and initiate studying plans to improve their performance next time. 

【指出對方的論點是錯誤的】

Yet, such a claim is in fact ill-founded.

【反駁對方觀點】

While it is acknowledged that scores do not reflect anything, I bet the opposition team has overlooked the importance of grades. Grading students into different distinct groups is already sufficient for them to realize the domains where they haven’t achieved well, while simultaneously will not impose tremendous burden on students and lead to vicious rivalries within classes as their actual rank is not revealed. 

【總結對方的論點是不成立的】

With this in mind, the opponent’s argument cannot stand. 

2018 DSE Writing Q5 部份七

【總結主要論點】

To conclude, it is the system of revealing students’ ranks that distort the true meaning of education; it is the system of exposing students’ class positions which creates unfairness for students; it is the system of showing class ranks on report cards that triggers the formation of Tiger Moms. (排比句) 

【引發共鳴】

To the audience, do you want to see teenagers, who are the future pillars of society, to grow in such a pressurized environment? To all the adjudicators, would you want your children to be eroded by the vicious rivalries in schools? To all the students sitting here, do you want your success to be judged by numbers on report cards any more?

【重申立場】

It is patently obvious that abolishing the students’ class positions is the prerequisite for enhancing our problematic education system. Therefore, today’s motion must stand.

【多謝大家】

Thank you!

如果大家有什麼英文問題,如Spencer Lam, 好唔好咁樣學英文呀? 或者IELTS考試,成人英文/商業英文的知識及英文資源,歡迎你可以隨時再跟我多交流一下,可以Follow 「Spencer Lam English Team」 Facebook pageIG得到更多英文資訊,亦都可以上 https://spencerlam.hk/ 了解更多!

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