【Preposition 用法】一文拆解+大量例子【文法終極指南】

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Spencer Lam
英文補習名師,港大一級榮譽,多年英文補習經驗,歷年來曾教授超過1000名學生,學生遍及各大名校,由初中至成人英語皆可因材施教,獲《TVB 星期日檔案》、《Now TV》、《ViuTV》、《晴報》、《明珠台》、《UMagazine》等專訪
目錄

Preposition 用法 詳解

英文前置詞/介係詞就是preposition。

原則上,preposition會放在名詞或代名詞前面,用來表示那個名詞與句子中其他字的關係,可以算是聯係不同字眼的橋梁,

包括:時間、位置、屬性、因果、方式等,讓句子更豐富。

preposition

Prepositions 例子

Prepositions of time

preposition
 UsageExample
ondays of the weekon Friday
inmonths / seasons

 

time of day

year

after a certain period of time (when?)

in September / in autumn

 

in the evening

in 2020

in thirty minutes

atfor night

 

a certain point of time

at night

 

at half past seven

sincefrom a certain point of time in the pastsince 1999
fora certain past time until presentfor 10 years
agoa time in the past4 years ago
beforeearlier than a specified datebefore 2020
totelling the timeten to 10 (9:50)
pasttelling the timeten past five (5:10)
to / till / untilthe beginning and end of a period of timefrom Wednesday to/till Friday
till / untilhow long something is going to lastHe is on vacation until Sunday
byindicating the latest something will happen by

 

up to a certain time

I will be done with work by 6 o’clock.

 

By 7 pm, I had finished my chores.

Prepositions of place

preposition
 UsageExample
inroom, building, street, town, country

 

book, paper, etc.

transportation

picture, world

We sleep in our bedroom. We live in Texas.

 

I live in the United States.

I read about it in Harry Potter.

We are going in a bus to the sports game.

You look great in that picture. Where in the world were you?

atnext to or by an object

 

for sitting at a table

for events

place where you are to doing something

Leave your shoes at the door.

 

We have dinner at the table.

I told him I would meet him at school.

We are studying at the library.

onattached

 

being on an object

for a certain side

for a floor in a house

for public transportation

for media

The mirror is on the wall.

 

The keys are on the desk.

The stage is on the right side.

We live on the first floor.

I talked to him on the bus.

I saw it on Twitter.

by, next to, besideleft or right of an object or personThe school is next to the church.
underon the ground or lower than something elseThe ants are under the rock.
belowlower than something elseThe glasses go below the cups in the pantry.
overcovered by something else

 

meaning more than

getting to the other side

overcoming an obstacle

Put a blanket over your lap.

 

You can drive if you are over 16 years of age.

Drive over the bridge.

Climb over the wall.

abovehigher than something else, but not directly over itThe plates go above the glasses in the pantry.
acrossgo to the other sideWalk across the bridge.

 

Swim across the pool.

throughto move from one place to another by entering the inside of somethingDrive through the tunnel.

 

Enter through the breezeway.

tomovement to person, building, place or country

 

can also indicate bedtime

Go to the restaurant.

 

Go to California.

Go to bed.

intoenter a room or a buildingGo into the house. Once there, go into the bedroom.
towardsmovement in the direction of something, as opposed to away from itShe walked towards the house.
ontomoving to the top of somethingJump onto the bench.
fromwhere did object come fromWe bought a fruit from the grocery store.

Preposition 其他常見種類

preposition

Simple preposition

Simple preposition

這是最常見的preposition種類。

例子:on, in, under, off, over, at, to, by, above, near, with, for, but, behind, from, beside, during, down

例句:

I am going to college.

The kitty is sitting on the chair.

The kid is hiding under the desk.

She met him at the school function.

The squirrels are sitting by the wood.

It is convenient to live near the office.

She made a portrait with charcoal.

I was fascinated by his talent.

The dinner has been placed on the dining table.

I have been her friend since 2005.

Double preposition

Double preposition

例子:

in between, from within, out of, inside of, up tp, onto, upon, into, from behind, outside of, within, without

例句:

The snake has gone out of control.

I was permitted the inside of the monastery.

Helen squished in between three of her relatives.

The criminal was shot from behind by the police

Our team is incomplete without him.

The intelligent girl solved 10 equations out of 12.

The monkey climbed onto the poles.

The chimpanzee is inside the zoo.

She came over to the party.

He stepped out of the cab.

Compound preposition

Compound preposition

例子:

on behalf of, accoring to, in addition to, aside from, with a view to, in the middle of, from beneath, in front of, across from, in place of, in regard to, in spite to

例句:

Hi, the scooter is parked in front of my house.

She bought a new handbag in addition to the new dress.

According to the news, the weather is going to be pleasant this week.

He found the coins from beneath the sofa.

Aside from dancing, she also draws very well.

The cops are running behind the robbers.

He was unwell, so Sheena performed in place of him.

Marla chose henry because of his positive attitude.

Vinny dressed according to the dress code.

She has a shop across the street.

Participle preposition

Participle preposition

Participle preposition可以分成present participles和past partciples兩種。

Present participles例子:

considering, touching following, failing, accepting, saving

Past participles例子:

respected, given, gone, taken, provded, pleased

例句:

Seeing his behavior, he was barred from the functions.

He was sad, given the fact he secured fewer marks.

I wish to get this book translated into French.

We will deliver excellent service provided we get paid well.

Considering the time spent, the portrait turned out to be beautiful.

The puppy kept following me through the market.

The dispute case of the house is still pending in the court,

No one is supposed to use the phone during the flight.

Assuming the debate will start in 2 hours, we all go for a tea.

I work the night shift, and now I am super tired.

Common mistakes

preposition

Type 1: 形容詞和名詞後的介詞

部分形容詞後面總是跟一個特定的介詞 (preposition)

  • “At”

例:bad at, good at, surprised at

I was surprised at the number of people who came.

  • “About and with”

例:angry about, pleased about (用於形容事物)

I am pleased about your new job.

例:angry with, pleased with(用於形容人物)

I was really angry with John.

“Disappointed”後需使用“about” 或 “with”;“Worried”後則只能使用“about”:

She was pretty disappointed with / about her exam results.

I am worried about John. They are worried about the test.

部分名詞後面總是跟一個特定的介詞。

  • “In”

例:decrease in, drop in, fall in, increase in, rise in:

There was an increase in attendance at this month’s meeting.

  • “Between”

表達對比兩件事,需使用“the difference between them”:

The main difference between the American and the Canadian accent is in the vowels.

  • “Of”

例:advantage of, disadvantage of, example of, number of, percentage of, use of

The number of people in my class who smoke is incredible.

Type 2: 動詞後的介詞

部分動詞後面必須跟一個特定的介詞。 有時可以使用多於一個介詞,有時根據使用哪個介詞,含義會有所不同:

  • “Agree”

Agree with用於同意人或想法:

I totally agree with the government’s decision.

Agree to用於同意某事:

Both sides in the war have agreed to the ceasefire.

  • “Apologize”

Apologise to用於向某人道歉

apologise for用於為某事道歉

Mum made me go and apologise to our neighbours for breaking their window.

  • “Find out, know, learn, teach, think”

以上動詞後都可以配搭about:

Our teacher is trying to teach us about life in the olden days.

“Think”後亦可以配搭 “about” 或 “of” 表達意見或未來計劃:

What do you think about / of the new computer lab? (意見)

I’m thinking about / of going back to university next year to finish my degree. (未來計劃)

  • “Look”

當表達注視某物時,需使用“look at”,而當表達尋找某物時,則使用“look for”:

Oh, look at the sunset! Isn’t it beautiful?

I’ve looked for my homework everywhere. Have you seen it?

Type 3: 時間和地點的介詞

我們用“in”表示年、月或一天的一部分,但“on”表示日或日期:

I came to Australia in 1988. We landed on 1st October, in the afternoon.

我們使用“at”來表示時間以及週末和晚上:

Let’s meet at the weekend. Are you free on Sunday at 8:00?

“For”可用作表示時間的長短:

I have lived in Australia for 18years.

“In”可配搭城市、國家和地方一起使用,表示某事發生在哪裡:

I met my husband in London.

我們亦可使用“in”配搭書、報紙、雜誌、期刊、電影或電視節目來表示在哪裡閱讀或看到某物:

I read some interesting new research in this month’s medical journal.

我們亦可使用“at”配搭學校、學院、大學、工作和家庭中來指代建築物:

‘Where is dad?’ ‘He’s at work.’

Shall we meet at the cinema? (= meet outside the building)

我們使用“to”配搭地方來顯示目的地:

‘Where are you going?’ ‘I’m just going to the library to do some work.’

如果大家有什麼英文問題,如Spencer Lam, 好唔好咁樣學英文呀? 或者IELTS考試,成人英文/商業英文的知識及英文資源,歡迎你可以隨時再跟我多交流一下,可以Follow 「Spencer Lam English Team」 Facebook pageIG得到更多英文資訊,亦都可以上 https://spencerlam.hk/ 了解更多!

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