【Grammar小教室】動詞短語輕鬆學

Spencer Lam
Spencer Lam
英文補習名師,港大一級榮譽,多年英文補習經驗,歷年來曾教授超過1000名學生,學生遍及各大名校,由初中至成人英語皆可因材施教,獲《TVB》、《Now TV》、《經濟一週》、《晴報》、《親子王》、《經濟日報》等專訪
目錄

動詞短語小教室

什麼是短語動詞?

短語動詞(也稱為多詞動詞)是與一個或多個介詞或副詞(稱為粒子)組合的動詞:

have you run (verb) out (particle) of (particle) energy?

使用短語動詞

通過給一個動詞加上不同的助詞,我們可以完全改變動詞的意思。 例如 …

Verb + particle

Meaning

Example

Take + after

resemble (look like)

Does your son take afteryou or your husband?

Take + off

leave the ground (of aeroplanes)

Fasten your seatbelts, please. We’ll take offshortly.

Take + on

accept work

She’s just taken on a new project, so she’s very busy at the moment.

Take + over

become responsible (for)

My brother took over the family business when Dad died.

Take + to

find likeable

Luckily, Mum and Dad took to my new boyfriend immediately.

Take + up

begin a hobby, sport, etc.

I’m thinking about taking up yoga.

很多時候,一個短語動詞有不止一個含義。 例如:

Fasten your seatbelts, please. We’ll take off shortly.

(= leave the ground)

You can take off the bandages after two weeks.

(= remove)

She’s just taken on a new project, so she’s very busy at the moment.

(= accepted)

The company will not take on any more staff.

(= hire/employ)

I’m thinking about taking up yoga.

(= beginning)

They’ve got an enormous TV. It takes up half the living room.

 (= occupies)

字面和慣用的短語動詞

有時您可以通過查看單個單詞來計算短語動詞的含義。 這些短語動詞稱為字面短語動詞:

It was busy, but we managed to get on the train.

在這句話中,get on 是字面動詞詞組,意思是進入。

I put up the painting in the living room.

在這句話中,put up 是一個字面動詞短語,意思是掛在牆上。

然而,有時,短語動詞的含義與單個單詞的含義完全不同。 我們稱這些短語動詞為慣用短語動詞:

My sister and I don’t really get on. I think we’re too different.

在這句話中,get on 是一個慣用的動詞短語,意思有很好的關係。

How are you getting on with that book you’re writing?

在這句話中,get on 是一個慣用的動詞短語,意思是進步。

When we were in Rome, Michael put us up.

在這句話中,提出意味著讓某人留在您的家中。

理解短語動詞

只要知道動詞和助詞的含義,就很容易理解字面短語動詞的含義:

We went up to the eighty-eighth floor.

 (= We went from a lower to a higher position.)

不熟悉的慣用短語動詞更難理解。 它們通常具有多種含義,具體取決於它們所使用的上下文:

Can we put off the meeting until tomorrow? 

(put off = delay/postpone)

What you said about Tracy really put me off her.

(put me off = made me dislike)

I set out at six o’clock.

(set out = started a journey)

She set out her pens, pencils, books and papers before she started work.

(set out = put things in a particular order)

不過,如果您發揮想像力,小詞通常也可以為您提供有關慣用短語動詞含義的線索。 例如:

The price of oil went up again today.

(= It went from a lower price to a higher price.)

I can’t keep up this speed much longer.

(= I can’t continue at this high speed.)

常用顆粒

以下副詞和介詞是短語動詞中最常用的助詞……

Particle

Literal

Idiomatic

after

He was very foolish to run after the robber.

Could you look after my dog while I’m away?

away

Back away from the dog slowly.

We were turned awaybecause we didn’t have tickets.

back

We came back from our holiday yesterday.

It’s never a good idea to look back on the past.

down

Put the box down over there.

Sarah, did you take down any notes during the class?

for

When you get there, ask for Dr Johnson.

I don’t really care forJapanese horror films.

in/into

The burglar came in through the window.

Drop in and see me if you’re in the neighbourhood.

off

We got off the train at Lo Wu station.

It’s an interesting plan, but I don’t think it’ll come off.

on

Ha! You’ve put on your shirt the wrong way round!

Stop picking on me! You’re such a bully.

out

He got really angry and walked out of the meeting.

Then, suddenly, the light went out.

over

Linda went over to talk to some guy by the pool.

You’ll get over her, don’t worry. There are lots of other girls.

up

She picked up the bottle from the floor.

She picked up Spanish very fast when she was in Madrid.

及物動詞和不及物動詞

有些短語動詞後面必須跟直接賓語。 我們稱這些短語動詞為及物短語動詞:

Could you turn on the lights, please?

I’ll look after your dog while you’re away.

有些短語動詞後面永遠不會跟直接賓語。 這些被稱為不及物動詞短語:

I’m happy with the way it all turned out.

Yes, things are really looking up.

許多及物短語動詞是可分離的,即我們可以選擇放置直接賓語……
粒子之後:

She’s heating up the soup.

或在動詞和助詞之間:

She’s heating the soup up.

小心:如果直接賓語是代詞,我們必須把它放在動詞和助詞之間。 我們不能把它放在粒子之後:

She’s heating it up. (NOT she’s heating up it.)

He put us up. (NOT he put up us.)

但是,有些及物動詞是不可分的,即動詞和小品詞不能分開。

不可分的及物動詞短語的直接賓語總是出現在助詞之後。 我們不能把它放在動詞和助詞之間:

we’re looking for my cat. have you seen her? (NOT we’re looking my cat for.)

不及物動詞短語總是不可分割的。 我們從不在動詞和助詞之間加任何詞:

wrong: Things are looking really up.

correct: Things are really looking up.

wrong: It all turned really well out.

correct: It all turned out really well.

帶有多個助詞(例如 put up with)的短語動詞通常也是不可分割的:

wrong: I look forward very much to seeing you.

correct: I very much look forward to seeing you.

小心:許多短語動詞既可以是及物動詞,也可以是不及物動詞,具有不同的含義:

 He took off his smelly shoes. (transitive)

 The plane took off one hour late. (intransitive)

如果大家有什麼英文問題,如Spencer Lam, 好唔好咁樣學英文呀? 或者IELTS考試,成人英文/商業英文的知識及英文資源,歡迎你可以隨時再跟我多交流一下,可以Follow 「Spencer Lam English Team」 Facebook pageIG得到更多英文資訊,亦都可以上 https://spencerlam.hk/ 了解更多!

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