【Grammar小教室】過去完成式輕鬆學

Spencer Lam
Spencer Lam
英文補習名師,港大一級榮譽,多年英文補習經驗,歷年來曾教授超過1000名學生,學生遍及各大名校,由初中至成人英語皆可因材施教,獲《TVB》、《Now TV》、《經濟一週》、《晴報》、《親子王》、《經濟日報》等專訪
目錄

過去完成時小教室

過去完成時可分為:

The past perfect tense

The past perfect continuous tense

Reported speech and the past perfect tense

今天 Spencer Sir 會教你精通過去完成時的所有知識!

The past perfect tense

我什麼時候應該使用過去完成時?

我們使用過去完成時來談論與過去的另一個事件或時間相關的過去動作。 過去完成時是“過去的過去”:

Before his last expedition, John Hare has already been to Lop Our five times.

When Hare’s team arrived, they discovered that illegal miners had shot the animals.

簡單的過去和完美的過去

我們經常一起使用一般過去時和過去完成時:
我們使用一般過去時表示最近的過去動作。
我們對過去發生的動作使用過去完成時。

As Hare and his team discovered, miners had been at Kim Su spring.

如何用過去完成時形成陳述?

我們在過去完成時中形成積極和消極的陳述,就像這樣……

Subject

had

past participle

 

He

had

visited

Kum Su before.

The team

had not (hadn’t)

seen

the miners that time.

The cyanide

had

poisoned

the wildlife.

The animals

had not (hadn’t)

seen

humans before.

如何用過去完成時提問和回答問題?

我們用這樣的過去完成時問問題……

(Question word)

had

subject

past participle

 

 

Had

the miners

poisoned

the water?

 

Had

the wild animals

seen

people before?

What

had

the miners

done

to the animals?

我們用這樣的過去完成時回答是/否問題……

Question

Positive answer

Negative answer

Had the miners poisoned the water?

Yes, they had.

No, they had not.

No, they hadn’t.

Had the wild animals seen people before?

Yes, they had.

No, they had not.

No, they hadn’t.

過去完成進行時

什麼時候應該使用過去完成進行時?

我們使用過去完成進行時來談論過去某個特定時間之前發生的正在進行的過去事件:

They had been using potassium cyanide to extract gold.

(They were doing this before Hare’s team arrived.)

簡單過去和過去完美連續

我們可以將過去完成進行時和簡單過去時一起使用來表明過去較長的動作被後來的過去動作打斷:

The Chinese government had been using Lop Nur asa nuclear test site before it made the area a nationalpark.

我如何用過去完成進行時形成陳述?

我們在過去的完美連續時態中形成積極和消極的陳述……

Subject

had

been

present participle

 

I / You /

He / She / It /

We / They

had

been

waiting

for hours.

had not (hadn’t)

been

mining

for gold.

如何用過去完成進行時提問和回答問題?

我們用這樣的過去完美連續時態提問……

(Question word)

had

subject

been

past participle

 
 

Had

John

been

returning

to Kum Su regularly since his first visit?

 

Had

he

been

looking

forward to returning?

What

had

they

been

doning

there?

我們用這樣的過去完美連續時態回答是/否問題……

Question

Positive answer

Negative answer

Had John been returning to Kum Su regularly since his first visit?

Yes, he had.

No, he had not.

No, he hadn’t.

Had he been looking forward to returning?

Yes, he had.

No, he had not.

No, he hadn’t.

報告的演講和過去完成時

我應該什麼時候在報告的演講中使用過去完成時?

如果直接引語是一般過去時、現在完成時或過去完成時,我們用過去完成時來報告它……

Direct speech

Reported speech (past perfect tense)

‘We travelled to China,’ said John Hare. (simple past)

John Hare said that they had travelled to China.

‘The journey was taking longer than expected,’ he admitted. (past continuous)

He admitted that the journey had been taking longer than expected.

‘I’ve given several lectures about the Bactrian camel,’ Hare explained. (present perfect)

Hare explained that he had givenseveral lectures about the Bactrian camel.

‘I’d always wantxed to be an explorer’, he explained. (past perfect)

He explained that he had always wanted to be an explorer.

 

我如何報告問題?

當我們報告是/否問題時,我們會進行以下更改……
我們使用報告動詞詢問而不是說,解釋等。
我們使用 if 或是否代替 that。

Direct question

Reported question

Have you been studying camels for a long time?’ she asked.

She asked him whether/if he had been studying camels for a long time.

Did you give the lecture?’ she enquired.

She enquired if/whether he had given the lecture.

當我們用疑問詞報告問題時,我們只是重複疑問詞。

Direct question

Reported question

How many times have you been there?’ she asked him.

She asked him how many times he had been there.

I asked them, ‘What did you do?’

I asked them what they had done.

如果大家有什麼英文問題,如Spencer Lam, 好唔好咁樣學英文呀? 或者IELTS考試,成人英文/商業英文的知識及英文資源,歡迎你可以隨時再跟我多交流一下,可以Follow 「Spencer Lam English Team」 Facebook pageIG得到更多英文資訊,亦都可以上 https://spencerlam.hk/ 了解更多!

Share:
Facebook
LinkedIn
Twitter
最新文章
文章分類