【Grammar小教室】介詞輕鬆學 + 3大常犯錯誤!

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Spencer Lam
英文補習名師,港大一級榮譽,多年英文補習經驗,歷年來曾教授超過1000名學生,學生遍及各大名校,由初中至成人英語皆可因材施教,獲《TVB 星期日檔案》、《Now TV》、《ViuTV》、《晴報》、《明珠台》、《UMagazine》等專訪
目錄

介詞小教室

介詞可分為:

What are prepositions?

Prepositions of place

Prepositions of movement

Prepositions of time

Difficult prepositions

今天 Spencer Sir 會教你精通介詞的所有知識!

什麼是介詞?

介詞是重要(但通常很短)的詞,通常放在名詞和代詞之前。
介詞有很多很多不同的用途。 例如,我們使用它們……
說說地方:

in the basement/ on stages at beach parties

談運動:

sailing across the Taiwan Strait

談時間:

in November 2012/ on 24 November 2012/ at 11 a.m.

在一些動詞、形容詞和名詞之後:

I was searching for a band that would be suitable for our cruises. My first impression of Supercharge was incredibly positive.

地點介詞

At/in/on

最常見的地點介詞是 at、in 和 on。 我們用 at 來談論……
地址:

at 22 Queen’s Road

BUT: in/on Queen’s Road

具體地點或建築物:

at a club/ at the mall

作為旅程階段或會面地點的地方:

They stop at ports in China.

我們用 in 來談論……

較大的地方,如地區(中央)、城市(悉尼)或國家(加拿大)

建築物、房間和容器(意思是裡面):

I’m in a beautiful church.

帶有某種邊界的開放空間:

We went camping in the forest.

I love swimming in the sea.

我們用 on 來談論……

在表面上的位置:

on the stage/ no the roof

大多數交通工具:

on a cruise ship/ on a bike

BUT: in a car / in a taxi

建築物的樓層(以及船舶和公共汽車的甲板等):

I live on the second floor.

其他地方介詞

There is a snack shop next to the pool.

Two boys are swimming under the water.

There are some deck chairs by/beside the pool.

There’s a pool near the stage.

The mixing desk is opposite the stage.

The drummer, Felix, is at the back of the stage, behind Nick.

The lead guitarist, Nick, is standing to the right of Jacky.

The bass guitarist, Sandy, is standing to the left of Jacky.

Jacky, the singer, is between the two guitarists.

There are two security guards among the audience.

The audience is in front of the stage.

There is a canopy above/over the stage.

The stage is below the canopy.

運動介詞

我們在 go、run、travel 和 walk 等動詞之後使用運動介詞來表示人和事物的去向。 以下是一些最常見的運動介詞……

across

We walked across the road.

along

I love walking along the busy streets of foreign cities.

down

William climbed down the ladder.

from

She ran all the way from the ferry pier.

into

I fell into the swimming pool.

off

Jacky fell off the stage.

onto

The players ran onto the pitch.

round/around

They walked round the ship.

through

Sandy looked through her sunglasses at the audience.

to

We’re sailing to Singapore next.

towards

The fans ran towards the stage.

up

She climbed up the mountain.

時間介詞

At/in/on

介詞 at、in 和 on 也用於談論時間。
我們在…
具有特定的時鐘時間:

at five o’clock/ at 7:45 p.m.

有假期:

at easter/ at Chinese new year

在這些表達中:

at night/ at breakfast/ at lunch/ at dinner

我們用 in 來談論更長的時間,例如……
一天中的部分時間:

in the morning/ in the afternoon

月:

in January

季節:

in spring/ in summer

年:

in 2004

幾十年、幾百年和幾千年:

in the 70s/ in the 21 century

我們使用…

具有特定日期和日期:

on Monday/ on 27 July/ on Christmas day

特定日期的部分時間:

on Wednesday afternoon

更多時間介詞

我們用 before 來談論較早的時間,用 after 來談論稍後的時間:

Before the concert Supercharge were very nervous, but after the show they felt great.

我們用 from 來談論開始時間:

The shop is open from 10 a.m.

我們使用 until/till/’til/to 來談論結束時間:

The shop is open from 10 a.m. until 9 p.m.

我們可以使用 between … 並以類似於 from … until 的方式使用。 但是,之間是指特定時間段內的時間,而不是開始和結束時間:

come any time between 6 p.m. and 7 p.m.

我們用 by 來談論最遲將或應該完成某事的時間:

I will be home by 11.

(= I will be home no later than 11.)

我們使用 during 來談論事件發生的整個時間:

Keep your mobile phone switched off during the film.

(= Switch off your phone when the film starts and leave it switched off until the film ends.)

困難的介詞

與形容詞一起使用的介詞

adjective

preposition

adjective

preposition

accustomed

to

interested

in

afraid

of

keen

on

angry

with

kind

to

aware

of

pleased

with

bad

at/for

prepared

for

bored

with

proud

of

fond

of

sorry

for/about

frightened

of

successful

in

good

at/for

tired

of

與動詞一起使用的介詞

verb

preposition

verb

preposition

ask

For/about

object

to

believe

in

participate

in

belong

to

refer

to

consist

of

rely

on

depend

on

search

for

dream

of

succeed

in

insist

on

wait

for

listen

to

wish

for

long

for

 

 

與名詞一起使用的介詞

noun

preposition

noun

preposition

belief

in

increase

in

congratulations

on

lack

of

details

of

problem

with

difficulty

with

proof

of

discussion

about

reason

of

example

of

responsibility

for

explanation

for

 

 

介詞 3大 常犯錯

“In, on, at” 成日用錯、唔知邊個打邊個?唔想成日因為 Grammar 而失分?想知點樣可以令你行文更加流暢、更加native? 以下係3個 英文 介詞 常犯錯,快啲嚟記低佢,無論 DSE 、 IELTS 咩試場上都唔會跌入呢啲陷阱啦!

常犯錯 1. 形容詞和名詞後的介詞

部分形容詞後面總是跟一個特定的介詞 (preposition)

  • “At”

例:bad at, good at, surprised at

I was surprised at the number of people who came.

  • “About and with”

例:angry about, pleased about (用於形容事物)

I am pleased about your new job.

例:angry with, pleased with(用於形容人物)

I was really angry with John.

“Disappointed”後需使用“about” 或 “with”;“Worried”後則只能使用“about”:

She was pretty disappointed with / about her exam results.

I am worried about John. They are worried about the test.

部分名詞後面總是跟一個特定的介詞。

  • “In”

例:decrease in, drop in, fall in, increase in, rise in:

There was an increase in attendance at this month’s meeting.

  • “Between”

表達對比兩件事,需使用“the difference between them”:

The main difference between the American and the Canadian accent is in the vowels.

  • “Of”

例:advantage of, disadvantage of, example of, number of, percentage of, use of

The number of people in my class who smoke is incredible.

常犯錯 2. 動詞後的介詞

部分動詞後面必須跟一個特定的介詞。 有時可以使用多於一個介詞,有時根據使用哪個介詞,含義會有所不同:

  • “Agree”

Agree with用於同意人或想法:

I totally agree with the government’s decision.

Agree to用於同意某事:

Both sides in the war have agreed to the ceasefire.

  • “Apologize”

Apologise to用於向某人道歉

apologise for用於為某事道歉

Mum made me go and apologise to our neighbours for breaking their window.

  • “Find out, know, learn, teach, think”

以上動詞後都可以配搭about:

Our teacher is trying to teach us about life in the olden days.

“Think”後亦可以配搭 “about” 或 “of” 表達意見或未來計劃:

What do you think about / of the new computer lab? (意見)

I’m thinking about / of going back to university next year to finish my degree. (未來計劃)

  • “Look”

當表達注視某物時,需使用“look at”,而當表達尋找某物時,則使用“look for”:

Oh, look at the sunset! Isn’t it beautiful?

I’ve looked for my homework everywhere. Have you seen it?

常犯錯 3. 時間和地點的介詞

我們用“in”表示年、月或一天的一部分,但“on”表示日或日期:

I came to Australia in 1988. We landed on 1st October, in the afternoon.

我們使用“at”來表示時間以及週末和晚上:

Let’s meet at the weekend. Are you free on Sunday at 8:00?

“For”可用作表示時間的長短:

I have lived in Australia for 18years.

“In”可配搭城市、國家和地方一起使用,表示某事發生在哪裡:

I met my husband in London.

我們亦可使用“in”配搭書、報紙、雜誌、期刊、電影或電視節目來表示在哪裡閱讀或看到某物:

I read some interesting new research in this month’s medical journal.

我們亦可使用“at”配搭學校、學院、大學、工作和家庭中來指代建築物:

‘Where is dad?’ ‘He’s at work.’

Shall we meet at the cinema? (= meet outside the building)

我們使用“to”配搭地方來顯示目的地:

‘Where are you going?’ ‘I’m just going to the library to do some work.’

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