【Grammar小教室】不定式和動名詞輕鬆學

Spencer Lam
Spencer Lam
英文補習名師,港大一級榮譽,多年英文補習經驗,歷年來曾教授超過1000名學生,學生遍及各大名校,由初中至成人英語皆可因材施教,獲《TVB》、《Now TV》、《經濟一週》、《晴報》、《親子王》、《經濟日報》等專訪
目錄

不定式和動名詞小教室

不定式和動名詞可分為:

to-infinitives

Gerunds

Verbs used with either gerunds or to-infinitives

Bare infinitives

Used to

Be/become/get used to

今天 Spencer Sir 會教你精通不定式和動名詞的所有知識!

to-infinitives

什麼時候應該使用不定式?

不定式(微笑、走路、成為等)是動詞的基本形式。
與不同的時態不同,不定式不給我們任何關於動作或事件時間的信息。 相反,我們使用它們以更一般的方式談論動作和事件。

我們可以單獨使用to-不定式或作為不定式短語的一部分:

I like to travel.

我們可以使用不定式作為句子的主語:

To think of travelling as a waste of money is completely wrong.

我們可以使用不定式作為動詞的補語:

Her dream is to travel to South America.

我們可以使用不定式來談論目的,即說出一個人為什麼做某事:

I went to Japan to climb Mount Fuji.

(= I went to Japan because I wanted to climb Mount Fuji.)

動詞後跟不定式

有些動詞後面總是跟不定式。 以下是一些最常見的:

agree*  aim  appear*  arrange*  ask*  attempt  choose  claim*

decide*  fail  happen*  hesitate  hope*  learn*  long  manage

need  offer  plan  prepare  pretend*  proceed  promise*

refuse  seem*  tend  threaten*  volunteer  want

方框中帶星號 (*) 的動詞後面也可以跟 that 子句:

 the family members all agree that Canada is more exciting travel destination than USA. it also seems that Canada is a friendlier place.

Gerunds

我什麼時候應該使用動名詞?

當我們將動詞的-ing形式用作名詞時,它被稱為動名詞。 例如:

I enjoy books.

(books is a noun)

I enjoy reading.

(reading is a gerund, a verb used as a noun)

我們可以使用動名詞…

當我們以一般方式談論動作時,作為句子的主語:

Travelling is a great way to learn about the world.

當我們以一般方式談論它時,作為句子的賓語:

 she goes hiking every weekend.

介詞後:

I’m thinking about going to Madagascar. I’m interested in seeing exotic countries.

在復合名詞中:

a travelling companion/ a shopping mall

動詞後跟動名詞

這些動詞後面總是跟動名詞,而不是不定式:

admit   avoid   consider   delay   deny   dislike   enjoy

excuse   fancy   finish   forgive   imagine   involve

keep (on)   mention   mind   miss   practise   prevent

quit   risk   suggest

與動名詞或不定式一起使用的動詞

以下動詞可以與動名詞或不定式一起使用而不會顯著改變含義:

advise*  allow*  begin  bother  cease  continue  hate  intend

like  love  permit*  prefer  start

I began to cook. = I began cooking.

只有當提到動作的對象時,帶有星號 (*) 的單詞才會跟不定式:

They advised me to take the train.

à They advised taking the train.

用忘記和記住,當我們談論我們以後仍然需要(或需要)做的事情時,我們使用不定式:

I remembered to pick up my ticket.

(= I did pick up my ticket. I did not forget.)

我們用動名詞來談論我們過去做過的事情:

I remember visiting my grandparents’ village when I was a child.

(= I have a memory of the visit. The visit is in the past, but I remember it now.)

當有人試圖做一些非常困難但可能不會成功的事情時,我們使用 try 不定式:

We tried to get tickets to the concert, but it was sold out.

(= We made an effort to get tickets, but we didn’t succeed.)

我們用動名詞來談論一個實驗,我們這樣做是因為它可能會解決一個問題:

On the night of the concert, we tried talking to the security guards and asking them to let us in.

(= We did talk to the security guards. We thought it might solve our problem.)

當我們使用 stop + gerund 時,它與停止(= 不繼續)具有相同的含義:

I was tired, so I stopped writing.

但是 stop + to-infinitive 意味著打斷一個動作去做別的事情:

On my way home, I stopped to get something to eat.

(= I stopped driving/walking and had something to eat.)

Bare infinitives

裸不定式是沒有 to(跑步、微笑、旅行等)的不定式。 我們使用裸不定式……

裸不定式是沒有 to(跑步、微笑、旅行等)的不定式。 我們使用裸不定式……

I might go to Britain next year, but I don’t want to go to London again.

在 have/help/let/make + 直接對象之後:

The travel agency had a driver pick me up at the airport. Then the driver helped me check in when we got to the hotel.

在感覺/聽到/聆聽/注意/看到/觀看+直接對象之後:

I had my vaccination yesterday. As I felt the needle goin, I heard myself scream out in pain.

after would rather… (than), 而不是, had better (‘d better) 和為什麼不:

I’d rather travel by sea than fly. And I think we should leave in September rather than wait until winter. Actually, we’d better book our tickets soon. Why not ask that friend of yours who’s a travel agent?

在動詞要求、推薦、請求和建議之後的那個從句中:

He recommended that I book the ticket one month in advance. I requested that he try to find an available seat for me.

當兩個不定式由 and/as/but/except/like/or/than 連接時,第二個通常是裸不定式:

I just want to stay at home and read today. I refuse to tidy my room or do any homework.

Used to

我們用to+bare不定式來談論過去。 我們用它……
強調過去的習慣或情況與現在不同:

I used to live in Canada.

(I don’t live in Canada any more.)

說說過去的套路。 在這種用法中, used to 可以替換為 will:

During the summer holidays, I used to (would) go fishing every morning. Then, when I got home, my mum used to (would) cook the fish for me over an open fire.

這是用 used to 形成否定陳述的最常見方式:

I didn’t use to like travelling, but now I love it.

這是最常見的提問方式:

When did you use to live in Canada?

在非常正式的英語中,我們用這樣的方式形成否定陳述和疑問句:

I used not (usedn’t) to like travelling.

Be/become/get used to

Used也是一個形容詞,意思是習慣的。 我們以這種方式使用它:
be/become/get (任何時態) + used + to (介詞) + 動名詞

I’m used to travelling by sea.

 (= I travel by sea a lot and I find it very natural.)

But I will never get used to flying.

(= Flying will never feel natural to me.)

如果大家有什麼英文問題,如Spencer Lam, 好唔好咁樣學英文呀? 或者IELTS考試,成人英文/商業英文的知識及英文資源,歡迎你可以隨時再跟我多交流一下,可以Follow 「Spencer Lam English Team」 Facebook pageIG得到更多英文資訊,亦都可以上 https://spencerlam.hk/ 了解更多!

Share:
Facebook
LinkedIn
Twitter
最新文章
文章分類