Present participle phrases
I struggled with my Cantonese, making a fool of myself in front of my relatives.
(= I struggled with my Cantonese. I made a fool of myself in front of my relatives.)
Living in Hong Kong, I know how busy and exciting life in a city can be.
(= Because I live in Hong Kong …)
談論同時發生的兩個動作或事件（將短語替換為連接詞，如 while、as 和 when）：
Walking down the street, I saw an interesting new shop.
(= As I was walking down the street …)
Past participle phrases
Excited by the film, he went back into the cinema to watch it again.
(= Since he was excited by the film, he …)
Bored with studying, Mary went for a walk.
(= As she was bored with studying, Mary …)
Perfect participle phrases
Having locked all the doors, Sally finally went to bed.
(= After she had locked all the doors, Sally …)
Having spent several years in Hanoi, Wendy knows the city very well.
(= Because she has spent several years in Hanoi, Wendy …)