【Grammar小教室】直接引語和報告引語輕鬆學

Spencer Lam
Spencer Lam
英文補習名師,港大一級榮譽,多年英文補習經驗,歷年來曾教授超過1000名學生,學生遍及各大名校,由初中至成人英語皆可因材施教,獲《TVB》、《Now TV》、《經濟一週》、《晴報》、《親子王》、《經濟日報》等專訪
目錄

直接引語和報告引語小教室

直接引語和報告引語可分為:

Using direct speech in writing
Changing direct speech into reported speech
Reporting questions, requests and orders

今天 Spencer Sir 會教你精通直接引語和報告引語的所有知識!

在寫作中使用直接引語

當我們在文本中寫直接語音時,我們需要使用引號(’…’)。

右引號前的標點符號遵循一些特殊規則。 我們用 …

感嘆號的感嘆號:

I shouted, ‘You’re crazy

一個問題的問號:

I asked her, ‘Are you serious

語句的逗號:

‘Looks aren’t everything, you know’ she told me.

句號僅在句末句號:

She told me, ‘Looks aren’t everything’

通常,我們使用動詞 say 或 tell 來介紹直接引語。 但是,以下動詞可以為讀者提供更多關於某人如何或為什麼說某事的信息:

add  advise  announce  answer  beg  claim

complain  continue  cry  demand  exclaim explain

moan  order  remind  reply  report  scream  shout

sob  suggest   warn  whisper  yell

我們通常把動詞放在直接引語之前或之後。 如果我們把動詞放在直接引語之前,我們需要在它後面加一個逗號:

Martin said, ‘Please, don’t do that.’

我們也可以把直接引語分開,把動詞放在中間(如果直接引語很長,這很有用):

‘Please,’ Martin said, ‘don’t do that.’

當我們將動詞放在直接引語之後或中間時,我們可以改變主語和動詞的順序:

‘Please, don’t do that,’ said Martin. / ‘Please,’ said Martin, ‘don’t do that.’

Changing direct speech into reported speech

當我們將直接引語變成引語時,我們經常需要改變……

動詞的時態。 原來的話是在過去的某個時間說出的,所以我們通常在報告的演講中將現在時變為過去時:

Direct speech

Reported speech

‘It is very expensive,’ said Lucy. (simple present)  

Lucy said (that) it was very expensive. (simple past)  

‘I’m studying medicine,’ explained Sarah. (present continuous )  

Sarah explained (that) she was studying medicine. (past continuous ) 

一些情態動詞:

Direct speech

Reported speech

can

could

may

might

must

had to

shall

should

will

would

一些人稱代詞和所有格形容詞/代詞(取決於誰做報告和誰說原話):

Direct speech

Reported speech

‘It’s my birthday,’ he said.

He said (that) it was his birthday.

We’re coming to your party,’ they said.

They said (that) they were coming to my party.

一些時間和地點的表達(取決於報告發生的時間和地點,以及說出原始話的時間和地點):

Direct speech

Reported speech

ago

before

before

earlier

here

there

last (night/week, etc.)

the (night/week, etc.) before the previous (night/week, etc.)

this (morning/afternoon, etc.)

that (morning/afternoon, etc.)

next (week/month, etc.)

the following (week/month, etc.)

now

then

these

those/the

yesterday

the day before/the previous day

today

that day

tonight

that night

tomorrow

the day after/the following day

 

Reporting questions, requests and orders

報告的問題類似於報告的陳述。 詞序是一樣的,我們需要對時態和時間和地點的表達做同樣的改變。

但是,當我們報告問題時,我們使用諸如詢問或詢問之類的報告動詞而不是說。 我們不使用它。

當我們報告是/否問題時,我們使用 if/whether 來代替:

Direct question

Reported question

‘Are you going to the party?’ asked Marie.

Marie asked whether/if I was going to the party.

‘Do you like parties?’ I asked her.

I asked her if/whether she liked parties.

當我們用疑問詞報告問題時,我們只是重複疑問詞:

Direct question

Reported question

‘When is the party?’ asked Billy.

Billy asked when the party was.

‘Who else is going?’ he asked.

He asked who else was going.

我們報告請求的方式與報告其他是/否問題的方式相同:

‘Could you lend me this book?’ she asked him.

為了報告命令,我們使用報告動詞告訴、命令或指示以及結構動詞 + 賓語 + 不定式:

‘Go to the bank tomorrow,’ he said.

à  He told me to go to the bank the following day.

要報告否定命令,我們將 not 放在不定式之前:

‘Don’t dive into the pool!’ yelled our swimming instructor.

à  Our swimming instructor ordered us not to dive into the pool.

如果大家有什麼英文問題,如Spencer Lam, 好唔好咁樣學英文呀? 或者IELTS考試,成人英文/商業英文的知識及英文資源,歡迎你可以隨時再跟我多交流一下,可以Follow 「Spencer Lam English Team」 Facebook pageIG得到更多英文資訊,亦都可以上 https://spencerlam.hk/ 了解更多!

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