【Grammar 技巧】 4種 常犯 Grammar 錯誤

Spencer Lam
Spencer Lam
英文補習名師,港大一級榮譽,多年英文補習經驗,歷年來曾教授超過1000名學生,學生遍及各大名校,由初中至成人英語皆可因材施教,獲《TVB》、《Now TV》、《經濟一週》、《晴報》、《親子王》、《經濟日報》等專訪
目錄

相信很多同學都想學好英文,但是又不知從何入手。學好英文的第一步,是要掌握好 英文 Grammar 技巧 和 用法,但其千變萬化相信很多同學不知道從何入手。今天將帶給大家4種 Grammar 常犯錯誤 和 Grammar 技巧 。

連接詞 伏位

3個易錯的so / so that / so as to

大家都一定用過 so 黎作句

咁你地又知唔知 so/so that/so as to 有咩分別呢?

今日就教大家分清楚,之後就唔會搞錯啦

 

1. so用以表達因果

so通常用以表達因果,「因為…所以…」,例如I am obese so I need to eat less. 因為我過重,所以我需要吃少點

 

2. so that 用以表達目的

so that表達的是目的,而不是結果,通常會配以can/ could/ will/ would使用

例如I do exercise regularly so that I can keep fit. 我規律地做運動,為的是保持健美身材

3. so as to 用以表達目的,但跟動詞

so as to同樣表達目的,但與so that不同的是,它後面會跟動詞,並且要是to-infinitive

例如I do exercise regularly so as not to gain weight. 我規律地做運動,為的是不增加體重

4. Only after, Only when 用法

唔知大家喺寫倒裝句嘅時候會唔會與到啲困難呢?今日就同大家講下兩個 only 的倒裝用法

分別是 only after 和 only when

Only after

倒裝前:She realized she had done it wrong after she had stolen the wine.

倒裝後:Only after she had stolen the wine did he realize she had done it wrong.

Only when

倒裝前:I felt excited when I had heard the good news.

倒裝後:Only when I had heard the good news did I feel excited.

要注意的是,倒裝前的前半句(after/when前)在倒裝後會變成did + subject + verb (present tense)

Conditional Sentence 伏位

Conditionals (If 句式) 係一個實用嘅句式,但同時都好易用錯

而家就俾條題目考下大家對 Conditionals 嘅認識啦

先問下大家下面邊個係啱嘅?

  1. If he was you, he would not do it.
  2. If he were you, he would not do it.

 

以上邊一句先係正確呢?

正確答案係B,可能有同學會唔太記得,以下同大家

  1. If 基本分4大類型,大家一定要隨時記得不同動詞嘅型態及用法
  1. 上面問大家嘅係 “假設” 嘅類別 (發生機率: 0%)

型態係: If you did it, you would do…..

  1. 用呢個類型嗰時要注意: If I were you, / If he were you (呢個時候應該要用 were ,而唔係was 。好多同學會寫錯的,記得要小心
  1. 好多人問點解會係用過去式 (past tense)? 因為past tense 除了表示 (i) 過去動作 ,亦可以表達 (ii) unreal past tense (不真實時都可以用)

Adverb 伏位

好多時,同學可能會將Adjective同Adverb混淆而用錯了

以下會指出3個最常錯的Adverbs,等大家可以係寫作嘅時候避免犯錯

1. Late

如果我想寫「我遲到」,好多人會寫I come lately,但其實正確應該是I come late

late可以同時是adjective和adverb,意思是指遲,而lately作為adverb意思會變成最近

2. High

如果我想寫「我飛得很高」,好多人會寫I fly highly,但正確應該是I fly high

同樣地,high可以同時是adjective和adverb,意思指高,而highly作為adverb是指高度

3. Wide

如果我想寫「我把門開得很大的」,好多人會寫I open the door widely,但正確應該是I open the door wide

wide可以是adjective和adverb,表示空間寬度,而widely作為adverb是指廣泛地

Passive Voice 伏位

Passive Voice 同 Past Tense,你地可以分得清楚嗎? 以下就會介紹吓三大 Passive Voice 嘅伏位。

主語與賓語位置交換

The technician changed the tire.

-> The technician was changed by the tire. (x)

應是:

The tire was changed by the technician. (v)

誤以為 adjective 是 passive voice

They are experienced teachers.

他們是經驗豐富的教師。

呢度嘅 “experienced” 係形容詞,有人見到 “are experienced” ,就誤以為係passive voice,令到句子解釋出錯。

過份使用 passive voice

用到 passive voice 的確係英文能力嘅一種表現,但過份使用不但會令到文章表達出現問題,更會混淆讀者。

適當嘅使用,有助文章表達思想就足夠。(多用於report/formal writing)

Passive voice 裡的動詞必要轉換

若果同學用 passive voice 嘅時候漏咗冇轉動詞嘅時態,就會有 grammar 錯誤

例如:

The floor is mop by me. (x)

祇是:

The floor is mopped by me. (v)

Past participle 而非 simple past

同學平時接觸到嘅英文詞多數都係 “ed” 尾,可能就會俾到個錯嘅印象俾同學,以為係simple past tense,但應該係past participle (PP) 先啱

例如:

The pencil was took by Peter. (x)

應是:

The pencil was taken by Peter (v)

 

*大家要重溫少用的pp形態,例如 (seek – sought -sought / sweep – swept – swept / deal – dealt – dealt 等)

唔用得 Passive voice 嘅情況

有啲情境係唔可以亂咁加上 passive voice嘅,因為並唔係所有英文句子都由 SVO 構成,有啲唔會有 O

例如:

She was gone out. (x)

應是:

She went out. (v)

仲有start/finish等字都不可以用被動 (一般而言)

Prepositions 錯誤

3prepositions 錯誤,等大家以後都可以分得清唔同 preposition應該運用嘅語境。

by / before

兩者都具有指定喺某一個時間點前嘅意思,例如:

“You will need to get to the airport by/before 9:00 a.m.”

你需要在上午9點前到達機場。

但同 by 唔一樣,before 亦可以用作連接詞,呢個係 by 做唔到嘅,例如:

It is advised that you read every single line of your contract before signing it.

在簽下合約前,建議你最好看清楚合約內容。

after / afterwards

緊接 after 之後,一定要用名詞或 gerund;若之後唔想加名詞,就可以用 afterwards,例如:

He threw up after drinking heavily.

他在喝太多之後嘔了。

Don’t have a meal and do cardio immediately afterwards.

不要在吃飯之後馬上做有氧運動。

on / in

對於好多人嚟講,in 同 on 係一對好棘手嘅組合。in 嘅意思係喺某一物嘅裡面,而 on 就係解喺某一物嘅上面。

仲有另一種用法就係日期:某月某日應用 on,例如 “on July 4th”;年份就應用 in,例如 “in 2020”。

As 伏位

係寫作嘅時候,相信好多同學都會用到As呢個連接詞來作句

但你知道As除了解作「由於、因為」外,還可以怎樣使用嗎?

以下會教大家As的4個不同用法,等同學可以活用呢個詞彙

1. as 表示 「以…的身份、作為、當作」

As 除了用作連接詞,也可作為介詞使用,需要在as後面加上名詞來表達對象

例句: Mary works as an IT assistant in the college.

2. as 表示「當…時」

這裡as用作從屬連接詞,此時as的意義與when/while相近,表示兩件事同時發生

例句:As we are playing football, it started to rain.

3. as 表示「隨著…」

這裡as用作從屬連接詞,表示兩件事隨著時間推移而發生變化

例句:As the technology advances, cybercrimes are getting more serious.

4. as 表示「依照、如同、像是、和…一樣」

這裡as用作從屬連接詞,此時as的意義與like相近,但不能用在有比較意味的句子

例句:Do not ask question, just to do as your father said.

錯用 Phrasal Verbs

有啲詞語組合埋一齊,就會有一個全新嘅意思,使用不謹,或一不小心,會令到文章意思變得模糊。

run out of (用完)

The printer has run out of paper.

影印機的紙張用完了。

opt out (撤出 / 退出 / 決定不參加)

The program is not mandatory, so you can opt out at any time.

這個計劃不是強制性的,你可以在任何時間點選擇退出。

make up (虛構 / 裝扮)

Stop making up excuses for coming in late.

不要再為遲到而虛構藉口了。

cut down on (減少)

We had to cut down on the budget last year.

我們上年需要減少預算。

Call off (取消)

例句:They called the show off as the heavy rain.

 

Put away (儲蓄、存放)

例句:I put part of my salary away for purchasing a house.

Try out (試用)

例句:I tried the new job out but decided it wasn’t suitable.

Ask sb out

ask同out砌埋,就會變成約某人出街

例如:

He asked her out last Sunday.

上個星期日他約了她出街。

Come across sth

come同across砌埋,意思就係發現、碰見

例如:

He came across some old keychains on his desk.

他在抽屜裡發現了一些舊鑰匙圈。

Put up with sth/sb

呢個phrasal verb嘅意思可以講同put或up冇任何關聯

分開寫有唔同嘅意思,但組合埋就解「忍受、容忍」

例如:

I don’t know how you put up with such horrible living conditions.

真不知道你是怎麼忍受這麼惡劣的生活環境的。

名詞化的轉換

所謂名詞化 (Nomiallization) 即係將動詞轉為名詞。大部分詞語都可以透過名詞化將詞性變化。以下介紹三大必學嘅名詞化句式。

  • retire (退休)  -> retiree (退休人士)

This neighbourhood is full of retirees.

這個社區充滿著退休人士。

  • defend (辨護) -> defendant (被告)

The defendant pleaded not guilty in court.

被告瘍庭上稱自己是無辜的。

  • resign (v. 辭職) -> resignation (n. 辭職)

His resignation shocked everybody.

他辭職的消息震驚了所有人。

作文3大 Top Grammar Errors

中文作文向來被稱為「死亡之卷」,英文作文亦都不惶多讓

好多時學生捉唔到英文語法嘅規律,結果俾人扣曬啲 grammar 分

而家就嚟睇吓作文三大錯誤啦

1. there have vs there be

好多香港人都會下意識咁將中文直譯成英文

當中最有標誌性嘅莫過於「呢度有」-> “there have”

正確嘅用法應該係 “there is/are”

例如:

There are 3 pairs of shoes in the locker.

2. everyday vs every day

呢兩個字看似一樣,但係佢地嘅用法實際上係有少少分別嘅

”everyday” 係一個adjective,用嚟形容一啲每日都會發生嘅事

例如:

Exercise should be a part of your everyday life.

(everyday = daily)

 

而 “every day” 就係一個 adverb ,every 反可以跟 “time”, “minute” 等,只係加上 “day” 後令同學更混淆

例如:

I exercise every day.

如果喺要用 “everyday” 嘅地方用錯 “every day” ,或者相反,就會錯 grammar 啦,同學要小心留意。

3. lack(n) of vs lack(v)

另一個最常犯嘅 grammar 錯誤就係 “lack”了

要寫「缺乏」嘅時候,你係咪就咁寫 “lack” 就算數?

冇錯,當呢個字係動詞用嘅時候就係啱嘅

但若果係當名詞用,後面必須要加上 “of sth” (某事物的短缺)

例如:

She lacks confidence.

The lack of money has become a bigger problem than expected.

Bonus:其他常犯錯誤

有啲英文聽落好順耳

但有可能就係你寫錯嘅句子

睇下下面呢幾句,你又揾下錯咗係邊呢

搵好先睇答案喎

  • The ramifications of launching this plan are as follow.
  • Last but not the least, the conservative values of Confucianism has hampered the development.
  • The government should take an in-deep look at the practicality of the local education system.

答案:

  1. The ramifications of launching this plan are as follows.
  1. Last but not least, the conservative values of Confucianism has hampered the development.
  1. The government should take an in-depth look at the practicality of the local education system.

沒錯!

有錯嘅版本可能好順耳

但其實係不正確架!

咁再嚟做多次啦喎!

  1. As a conclusion, heritage preservation can coexist with economic development.
  1. As the whole, Keung To has been performing well.

以上兩名參賽者都有grammar錯誤

你又無搵唔搵到呢?
都係搵好先睇答案喎

答案:

  1. To conclude, heritage preservation can coexist with economic development.
  1. As a whole, Keung To has been performing well.

學咗佢,唔好再犯呢啲Grammar mistakes 就包你升到 grade 啦!

  1. Beyond a shadow of doubt, the new policy is disgusting.

2. It is no denying that studying is sometimes dreary.

以上兩句都有錯誤 ⨯

諗好就睇下面答案啦❗️

1.Beyond the shadow of a doubt, the new policy is disgusting.

2. There is no denying that studying is sometimes dreary.

有時你會覺得

The vs a

It is vs there is

好似無咩唔同?

Grammar 線上課程 更有效幫你提升 a/an/the 分別

3. From my point of view, the new system will never be adopted in Hong Kong.

4. The government should pay a concerted effort to nurture our next generation.

你諗好有咩錯未呢?

諗好先好睇下面

3. In my point of views, the new system will never be adopted in Hong Kong.

4. The government should make a concerted effort to nurture our next generation. (字詞配搭)

有陣時

啲s係set梗咗

啲動詞都唔可以亂用架!

作文成日覺得in/on/at 好難分? 想知改卷員最憎邊個錯?

只係覺得順耳就算?

試下睇唔睇得出下面2句有咩錯啦:

5. There are hundreds of bats and mosquitoes in there.

6. Not many people concern the plight of the refugees from Japan.

你諗好有錯咩呢?

諗好先好睇下面答案喎

5.奇怪的 in/on/at

There are hundreds of bats and mosquitoes there.

(there 本身就不用再加 in)

6.分清主被動

Not many people are concerned about the plight of the refugees from Japan.

(擔心 – 多用於被動式 所以一定是 are concerned*)

成日唔小心寫chinglish?

又嚟 test 下自己睇唔睇得出啲港式英文 grammar 啦

7. Students can learn a lot of knowledge by reading.

8. Students can widen their eyes by travelling around the globe.

你諗好有錯咩呢?

諗好先好睇下面

7. Students can acquire a lot of knowledge by reading. (learn 本身已有知識的意思,所以不用再重覆)

8. Students can broaden their horizons by travelling around the globe.

(widen their eyes 用詞不當)

如果大家有什麼英文問題,如Spencer Lam, 好唔好咁樣學英文呀? 或者IELTS考試,成人英文/商業英文的知識及英文資源,歡迎你可以隨時再跟我多交流一下,可以Follow 「Spencer Lam English Team」 Facebook pageIG得到更多英文資訊,亦都可以上 https://spencerlam.hk/ 了解更多!

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